In its heyday Spanish Jewry was one of the largest, most prosperous and cultivated Jewish communities in the world. Despite centuries of unrivaled Jewish success, this “Golden Age” came to an end in 1492 with the promulgation of the “Alhambra Decree,” which presented the Jews with the options of conversion to Catholicism, exile or death. The majority of Jews in Spain, between 200,000 and 250,000, were forced to apostatize while somewhere between 40,000 and 100,000 were forced into exile. Today, an estimated 13,000 (affiliated) and 50,000 (resident) Jews live in Spain, concentrated in the provinces of Madrid, Barcelona and Malaga as well in the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. A significant portion of these are Spanish-speaking Jews who returned to Spain after centuries of exile in northern Morocco. Ashkenazi Jews (primarily from Latin America, but also of European origin) have also arrived in Spain over the last several decades. The Federacion de Comunidades Judías de España (Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain) is the Spanish affiliate of the World Jewish Congress.